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Cortona is an ancient city, once a capital in the Etruscan Federation from the 7th to the 4th centuries BC. Some of the gates, walls, tombs, and older parts of the city wall reflect this Etruscan heritage that was assimilated by the Romans who occupied the city from 4th Century BC to 5th Century AD. After the Roman civilization, the Goths occupied the city in 450 AD. Subsequently, Cortona suffered economically until medieval times when a "comune" (an independent city-state) was organized around 1200 AD. Although Cortona flourished during the Renaissance under the Grand Dukes of Florence, the city, even today, maintains a distinctly medieval character.